Universal Design for Learning emphasizes equity. Instead of providing only one way to participate in a course, several options to access content, participate in class and demonstrate competency should be created with a variety of students in mind. For example, a mid term exam in a history course could take the form of an oral exam, a written paper, a digital project or a community interview/service learning experience. In this case, a student who is blind would not need an accommodation because an acceptable option for him is already built into the course. UDI can reduce the need for special accommodations by provided the means for more students participate from the outset of the class.
In another example, some faculty members plan their exams so that the average student would take only about 70% of class time to complete it. In this scenario, students who need extra time can still take the exam with their classmates, rather than having to arrange an out of class meeting.
Reference: Boyd, R., & Moulton, B. (2004). Universal Design for online education: Access for all. In D. Monolescu, C. Schifter, & L. Greenwood (Eds.), The distance education evolution: Issues and case studies (pp. 67-115). Hershey, PA: Information Science Publications.